Railway Signalling & Interlocking

Contents 5 4.3.3 Basic Route Locking Functions...............................................................................70 4.3.4 Route Selection by the Signaller..............................................................................75 4.3.5 Flank Protection......................................................................................................76 4.3.6 Overlaps and Front Protection ................................................................................79 4.3.7 Route Elements in the Start Zone............................................................................83 4.3.8 Life Cycle of Routes................................................................................................84 4.3.9 Principles of Route Formation in the Track Layout...................................................89 4.3.10 Shunting Routes .....................................................................................................91 4.3.11 Automation of Route Operation...............................................................................93 4.4 Block Dependences .............................................................................................94 4.4.1 Introduction ............................................................................................................94 4.4.2 Geographical Assignment of Block Sections ...........................................................96 4.4.3 Classification of Block Systems...............................................................................97 4.4.4 Process of Block Working in Token Block Systems .................................................99 4.4.5 Process of Block Working in Tokenless Block Systems .........................................100 4.4.6 Locking Functions of Tokenless Block Systems ....................................................102 4.4.7 Returning Movements...........................................................................................103 4.5 Special Issues.....................................................................................................105 4.5.1 Overlaying Block and Route Interlocking Systems.................................................105 4.5.2 Protection of Trains by a Signal at Stop in Rear.....................................................106 4.5.3 Several Trains between two Signals ......................................................................106 4.5.4 Degraded Mode Operation ...................................................................................107 5 Detection...........................................................................................................113 5.1 Requirements and Methods of Detection .........................................................113 5.1.1 Introduction ..........................................................................................................113 5.1.2 Types of Objects ...................................................................................................113 5.1.3 Safety Requirements.............................................................................................113 5.1.4 Detection Purposes ..............................................................................................114 5.2 Technical Means of Detection............................................................................116 5.2.1 Classification.........................................................................................................116 5.2.2 Spot Wheel Detectors...........................................................................................116 5.2.3 Linear Wheel and Axle Detectors ..........................................................................120 5.2.4 Linear and Area Detectors for Vehicles and External Objects.................................121 5.2.5 Three-Dimensional Detection ................................................................................123 5.2.6 Systems with Active Reporting from the Train........................................................124 5.2.7 End of Train (EOT) Detection Systems...................................................................127

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